惟独得罪了你

最近和弟兄姊妹们的读经进入大卫犯罪和 神的管教和惩罚 (撒下11-24章,代上20-27章)。

虽然我们大多数人无法和大卫相比,但圣灵的严肃训诫却是极其清楚。

我发现我过去只是从个人中心的角度,用一个道德的眼观来审视大卫 (但实际上却在暗中为罪人寻找出路)。

这是该隐的心,是罪人的心,不虔之人的心,小人的心,是“贼”的心。

但这次,我忽然明白一点,罪从来都不只是一个“错误”,而是一个有针对性的背叛。

从亚当夏娃、该隐开始,从来都是如此。

到了大卫,就更是清楚。因为大卫和 神之间有个特殊的关系。他是 神的朋友。那个朋友关系,非同寻常!

但大卫犯罪,背叛了 神,其所意味的针对性背叛之严重,也非同寻常。

在旧约时代,由于 神启示所使用的特别方式,神与同时代的人中建立那个朋友关系,即使不是独一无二,也是极个别的。从亚伯拉罕,到大卫,都是如此。

今天,蒙了基督恩典並选择跟随主的人,虽然我们人数众多,但是在生命关系上,却更是那种亲身的个人关系 (personal relationship)。

大卫犯罪,实际是背叛了 神,这和他是否故意背叛 神是两件不同的事。由于那个关系的特殊性代表着一个特殊的生命属性和生命关系,大卫所做的,直接深深地伤害了那个关系。

那个伤害对神是 personal 的(个人的,或亲身的)。

神由此也以亲身的方式来处理大卫的罪。

God took it personally.

神惩罚大卫,不是不顾(in spite of),   而恰恰是因为(because of), 大卫在 神心中特殊位置,不仅是朋友,更是 神国度的君王基督的代表。

关系越亲,伤害越大。

这正是大卫为何在诗篇51片中这样说:

“我向你犯罪,惟独得罪了你;在你眼前行了这恶。。。”  (诗篇51:4)

诗篇51是一个何等样的祷告!先知拿单指出大卫的罪后,大卫马上就醒了过来。

大卫对罪的感觉,真是一个认识 神,并与 神有亲密关系的人才有的感觉。

他不是该隐。该隐像贼一样,所有的折服都是由于对 神能力的畏惧,他只求自己的出路和安全。

大卫犯罪后的后悔之心,如果要在人间关系中找到一个最接近的可以作为比方的话,大概是发现背叛了最尊敬的兄弟之后的哀求,但也只是一个很不完全的比喻。

这是一颗高贵的心(a noble heart)。

大卫所受的,也正是一个高贵的心才会受到的创伤和痛苦。一个像该隐那样不虔之人,他心中除了畏惧带来的有限顺服外,别无悔恨,也就别无痛苦。

先知拿单告诉大卫,由于他的罪,刀剑必不离开他的家。

这是何等样的管教和惩罚,然而大卫在诗篇51中的祷告,却没有一个字求告 神,让刀剑离开他的家(事实上后来也正像先知拿单所说的,刀剑没有离开大卫的家)。

因为大卫知道 神旨意已定,一切都是必要的责罚和管教。

大卫求 神恢复他里面的灵,恢复他和 神亲密的关系,犹如恋人的恳求,挚友的恳求,实际还超过那些。

大卫也求 神随祂的美意善待锡安,建造耶路撒冷的城墙。(诗篇51:18)

大卫明白 神的性情和心意,明白肉身和属灵,今世和永世之间的区别。

刀剑没有离开大卫肉身的家。但藉着大卫,神却建造了基督永远的家。那个家在永世里,锡安和以色列国只是预表。

在那里,「…神要擦去他们一切的眼泪;不再有死亡,也不再有悲哀、哭号、疼痛,因为以前的事都过去了。」(启示录 21:4)

在永世里,神对大卫的赦免以及建造,完全彻底,没有保留。大卫在那里没有亏损。更重要的是,基督在那里没有亏损。

「以後再没有咒诅…」 (启示录 22:3a)。

Blessed is the man…这人有福

圣经诗篇是这样开头的:“Blessed is the man…这人有福。。。”

「不从恶人的计谋,不站罪人的道路,不坐亵慢人的座位, 惟喜爱耶和华的律法,昼夜思想,这人便为有福!」

由于语言习惯,诗篇第一篇的中文里 “这人便为有福” 在句子后面。但原文和英文译本,都是 “ אַ֥שְֽׁרֵי־הָאִ֗ישׁ ‘esher ‘ı̂ysh Blessed is the man…(这人有福。。。)” 开头的。

这里有一件极重要的事,常常如果我们不经意的话会错过,我们会以为,诗篇第一章是 神的一个要求,要人做对的事,如果做到的话,就赐福给这人作为奖赏。这个理解作为一种行为准则虽然并不错,但却和原文的意思不完全一样。 (more…)

Psalms Book 2 (Psalms 42-72)–study notes in English

I. The title of this book. It is called Psalms or The Book of Psalms, which literally means “poem songs”, hence the Chinese translation “诗歌”. The Lord Jesus called this book “Psalms ” in Luke 24:44. Apostle Peter referred to “The Book of Psalms” in Acts 1:20.

II. The division of the book into separate books. The book of Psalms is divided into five books, each concluding with Amen or Hallelujah. This division is as early as we know about the book of Psalms itself (probably formed along with the original compilation of the Psalms), rather than a rational convenience added much later. Careful reading of the book of Psalms will show that this division is meaningful.

III. The author of Book 2 of Psalms. Several authors contributed to the 31 psalms of Book 2. These authors include David (18 or more), sons of Korah (6-8), Asaph (1), Solomon (1), and anonymous (3). Like in other books of Psalms, David is the author of the majority of psalms in Book 2. David is called the “sweet psalmist of the Israel” (2 Samuel 23: 1). The genius of David is without doubt a special gift from God to His Church. It is befitting that The King of Israel, the man who is after God’s own heart was given this special gift laying towards poetry and music for the purpose of expressing the most sacred thoughts and feelings a man could have about God and unto God. Just as Moses was given a special genius to establish the tabernacle and the law according to the words spoken by God, David was given a special gift to speak the spiritual reality behind the tabernacle and the law. The law was given through Moses but grace comes through Jesus Christ, who is typified by David in the Old Testament. It is only in the spiritual realm that psalmist could proclaim “for you desire not sacrifices…”, which if spoken by another in a different context would have been clearly a contradiction to God’s law.

IV. Central thought contained in Book 2 of Psalms. Psalms describes an intimate relationship between God and God’s people by revealing the soul and heart of Israel looking upward and inward to God in reaction to the world (both inside and outside). In this regard, Book 2 is in contrast with Book 1 because Book 1 focuses on a covenant relationship between God and His people while in Book 2 that relationship is tested or even broken. It is reflected in the way the psalmists address God. In Book 1, God is called “Jehovah” which is the name of God uniquely given to Israelites. Only God’s people called God Jehovah. No other nation, even those who knew God in a general notion, did not call God Jehovah. The name of Jehovah not only symbolizes but also seals the covenant relation between God and His people. But in Book 2 God is called, most of the time, just “God” (Eloheem), a name that is also used by other nations to address God in general. The name “God” is of course no less divine than the name Jehovah, but often the name of Jehovah is used with an emphasis on the covenant relationship. As far as the condition of God’s people is concerned, the covenant trust is lost, which is precisely the point to be proven by God in the Old Testament (that is, the law cannot save). But God is faithful. In Book 2, the need for Messiah is more evident because of this dreadful condition of God’s people. When the Israelites focused the eyes on the covenant, they tended to think that they were special. But when they came to face the reality of the sin, they started to understand their only hope is in the “Promised One”, Messiah.

V. How to read Book 2 of Psalms? The general principle applies to reading all Psalms. Psalms is of a peculiar nature among the books of the Old Testament. While many other books in the Old Testament recount God’s action through His people, Psalms narrates, in the highest, deepest and purest form, God’s thought and emotions experienced with His elect. Psalms isn’t a mere record of the most admirable spirituality of a few excellent individuals, most notably David, for the benefit of inspiration and encouragement of its intended readers. The Spirit of Christ, before the Word became flesh in Jesus, did not just guide God’s Israel, but in fact lived with Israel, co-experienced everything, shared His holy feeling and emotion with an earthly but elected people. He co-lived and co-suffered with them, fully sympathized with them in their internal frustration, external oppression, their failure and sorrow of living in a sinful world with their own sinful flesh. But equally important, He also rejoiced and was exalted with their victories. In the midst of this long journey, the Holy Spirit found a few worthy souls and tongues, no less than that of David and several other special individuals, to express all that. We thus have before us these precious Psalms.

It is a good thing for Christians to read Psalms as a source of spiritual inspiration and help, as God’s power is made real through our affection. However, reading for personal inspiration is not the central and most important purpose why God gave us Psalms. There’s often a shortcoming of reading Psalms from a self-centered view. It is the desire of the Holy Spirit that we read Psalms in such a way that we enter into the fellowship with Christ through the Spirit of Christ. Although this is true for reading every book in the Bible, Psalms occupies a unique position for this purpose. Just as God did not reveal everything to His people through history and action alone but reserved some deepest and highest thoughts to Psalms, we cannot today understand the heart of Christ by merely doing good Christian deeds, although that is extremely important. There is a peculiar aspect of our spiritual life which the Lord desires, which is to enter into the spiritual fellowship with Him by reading, reciting and meditating on the Psalms. If the Psalms does not affect every aspect of our life, it should at least affect our prayer life.

In Book 2 in particular, we should focus on two things:

(1) On one hand is the sense of rejection, contradiction and sorrow Christ suffered when He was down on earth. The Father knew what His Son was going to suffer. He therefore expressed that through His psalmists prophetically. The life experience of the greatest psalmist, David, typified the experience of Christ. Even if the psalmists might not have been fully conscious of the work of the Holy Spirit then, the sacred expressions recorded in the Psalms are nevertheless the true spiritual expression by the Holy Spirit. Unless we gain this sympathy with the Holy Spirit, we will always be quarrelsome with Him with regard to the prophetic nature of Psalms, and be left with either shallow reading of poems or dry and dead theology.

(2) On the other hand is the exultation of Christ on high, which is the evidence of our salvation, beyond having a mere notion of a loving God. How joyful and perfect is the union of Christ and His beloved in the Psalms when read by the regenerated souls!

 

Psalm

Main thoughts

42-43

The cry of the heart after God Himself.  The godly man is outside of the tabernacle, separated from God. This man represents the remnant of God’s people. His true heart is proven when he is separated from what he loves.  His faith is tested when the enemy can provoke, with well supported confidence, “where is your God?”  (42:3). The psalmist praises God for His countenance alone, because for him that is the only help and comfort (42:5). The authorship of these two psalms is unclear.  Although many attribute them to sons of Korah, some believe they were actually written by David but given to the sons of Korah, who are dedicated singers of psalms, to sing.

44

God’s people were cast off and scattered (44:9). They were slaughtered for the sake of their God; but God is silent.  They recall the old days when God did great things among them.  If psalms 42-43 are about the faithful inner condition of the remnant, psalm 44 is the life testimony of the remnant.  The chastisement came down as a result of the people’s unfaithfulness, but the suffering was most felt by the faithful remnant.  But it is God’s will that the remnant take the suffering because it is their prayers that awaken God for reconciliation – this is the way of Cross; and it is the faithfulness and victory of the remnant that is counted as a benefit toward the people – this is the way of the Lamb.  Psalm 44 is a vivid picture of the state of God’s people, a picture that must be clearly in the conscience of the remnant today.

45

The answer to the elect’s cry for God’s help is the Messiah in glory and judgment. 45:6-7.

46-48

The result of the coming of Messiah: recovery of the covenant relationship; the name of Jehovah is again called upon.

49

The psalmist turns his attention to man, making a firm conclusion: all that is exalted in man is but emptiness. It is always fitting to tell man to put off his candle when the Sun has risen.

50

If Psalm 49 is a warning, Psalm 50 is judgment.  It should be noted that Psalm 50 is written in direct words spoken by God.  The true judgment can only be from God Himself.  But even in the judgment, God calls to His own people (50:7) to repent and to escape .

51

If psalms 42-43 were written by sons of Korah, Psalm 51 is probably the first Psalm written by David in Book 2.  This is on a different ground.  If the previous psalms proclaim the truth on behalf of God, this psalm is the revelation of the truth itself to the heart of a man of God.  How terrible the truth is!  David came to the end of himself to realize how awful the nature of his life is.  He no longer comes to God as a member of His covenant people, always assuming that sacrifice made at the altar is sufficient to cleanse one’s sin.  The situation was such that David came to a realization, with a broken heart, that the forgiveness of sin requires something much more than the sacramental sacrifices.  This Psalm should be in the conscience of every child of God, because it is the confession to the death of Christ, the absolutely necessary atonement to sin.  David knew that, and that’s why he accepted the fact that his child was taken away as a result of his sin.

52-55

These psalms, including the ten subsequent psalms (56-65), depict the test of the faith and trials of the faithful in the midst of the ungodly. These psalms are rich spiritual experiences of David, testifying the relationship between the godly and the ungodly world and the relationship between the godly and God.  Note that Psalm 53 is almost identical to Psalm 14 except that here it speaks of God instead of Jehovah.

56-59

Psalms 56 -59 are David’s golden Psalms, all written in his greatest trials rather than any of David’s “golden times”.   God’s definition of gold is different from man’s.

Psalms 58-59, and also some other psalms by David, contain calls of the righteous for judgment of the wicked.  This is the call of the Israel at the end, at which point they came to conclude that only with the judgment of the world can the faithful be delivered from their suffering.  That is the natural and rightful conclusion under the old covenant.  This psalm is applicable to the elect under the new covenant, but on a higher ground.  As for us who are saved by grace, our deliverance is not conditioned on the judgment of wicked but solely on the merit of the death of Christ.  Nevertheless, there will be a time at the end when the prayers of the saints will be calling for the judgment of the world (Revelation 6:9-11), not to the people personally but to the kingdom of Satan.

60

David recognizes the true condition of Israel as an outcast of a broken covenant.  But he continues to cry out to God for help.  There is no desire to turn to elsewhere for help, and no spirit of rebellion: God has abandoned us, but He is nevertheless righteous, and furthermore the only hope. This is the true spirit of Israel in God’s heart, and shows why David is a man of God.  It is from this spirit that the lifeline in Israel continues until the coming of the Messiah.

61

The precious faith continues despite of the depressing condition.

62

David’s heart matures to become more like that of Christ.  He approaches God with a quieter spirit, learning waiting upon God. “Upon God alone, O my soul, rest peacefully; for my expectation is from Him.”  (62:5). 

63

The spirit and the experience of Psalms 62 deepen.My soul thirsts for thee, my flesh languishes for thee, in a dry and weary land without water…” (63:1).

64

The trial is even more severe and gets personal, placing David’s life in danger.  Previously, he could see his enemy, but now the danger was from the dark and David could not see it but only knew it was there.  His trust in the Lord continues.

65

David receives a new revelation.  He now not only further acknowledges that salvation is by grace, but also that the salvation is by the election of God.  (65:4).

66

Trials are over and the godly have overcome.  A psalm of praise.  The people of God have been brought to a place of abundance, not just in hope and faith, but in actual experience.  (66:10-12)

67

The blessing even reached the world through God’s people.

68

David recounts the history of God’s dealing with His people: a summary of victory.  The covenant is kept by God: “His name is Jehovah” (68:4).  David receives a high revelation of Christ’s Ascension: “You have ascended on high, you have led captivity captive.” (68: 18).  This is the same revelation apostle Paul received (Ephesians 4:8-11 and Colossians 2: 15).

69

The godly is in deepest distress.  This is one of the psalms that use the tone called “lilies”.  Compare this lily with the lily in Psalm 45.  That was the golden lily blooming in the fair garden; this is the lily among thorns, the lily in the Garden of Gethsemane. The godly are lilies in the eyes of God, beautiful and will be rewarded with glory, but the beauty of all lilies is based on the humiliation of this Lily, and all reward is based the suffering of this Lily. “Those who hate me without reason outnumbered hairs of my head” (69:4). Among all who are but flesh, who is more qualified than David to suffer such suffering in order to prove the unjust of the persecution!  Yet David’s soul pauses and recognizes that no matter how unreasonable his suffering is, he deserves it because his guilt is not hidden from God (69:5).  But all that suffering is but an illustration of what the true Lily, who is completely sinless and does not know sin, was subject to suffer. Why did the Holy Spirit place this psalm, and also the following one, after the glorious and the victorious psalms 66-68?  Perhaps even in eternity, we will be reminded of what the Lord did for us by looking at His pierced hands.

70

A continuation from Psalm 69. “Aha, Aha…” is the sound of the ungodly when Christ was on the cross.  Hearing that sound may help us understand better the desire of the Holy Spirit to deliver the godly.

71

The psalm is also by David. But unlike 69-70, this one is more personal to David.  It is as if the Holy Spirit, after entering through David the messianic experience in psalms 69-70, and before concluding Book 2 through the sovereign psalm 72 by the Son of David, once again deeply looks at the heart of David who in this psalm represents the godly rather than Christ Himself.  David thus summarizes his life.  A delivered life his is!  It is as if the Holy Spirit needs to look at the status of God’s people one more time before concluding from the Throne.

72

A Book 2 is concluded by the Psalm by Solomon, the son of David. This is the only psalm in the Psalms that is identified to be written by Solomon.  But the psalm ends by stating “This concludes the prayers of David, son of Jesse.”  So it is still the prayer of David after all, but this is about reign of the King and His peace, pointing more directly to the Son of David, the true Solomon, our Blessed Lord.

诗篇69

诗篇69是何等地宝贵!小子每次读到,都不能不从心里最深处发出对我的救主耶稣的感激和赞美。

这首诗的调用“百合花”。奇妙的是,诗篇45的调也是百合花。但45章那里是花园中盛开的百合花,而69章这里却是夹挤在荆棘中的百合花,是客西马尼园中的百合花

属神的人在 神的眼中是美丽的百合花,将得荣耀的奖赏。但那一日我们都会明白,所有百合花的美丽都是出自这朵百合花(客西马尼园中的百合花)的羞辱,而所有的奖赏都是出自这朵百合花的苦难!

“无故恨我的﹐比我的头发还多”(69﹕4)。这里, 爱神的人正处在最痛苦的熬炼中。在旧约时代,神找到一个人可以借他的遭遇来显明那钉基督十字架的世界之无理。那时代有谁比大卫对此角色更合适呢,有谁经历过比大卫更不合理的遭遇和苦难呢?  然而,大卫的心在神面前安静下来,意识到他所经历的一切苦难都不过份,因为他的罪愆在神面前是赤露敞开的(49﹕5)。然而大卫的经历却预表那无罪无瑕的真百合花将要遭受的苦难。

为什么在荣耀、得胜的66至68章之后,圣灵赐下这一章及下面的一章?  或许,即使在永世里,我们仍需从祂钉痕的手上记念主所为我们做的。

诗篇69整篇录在下面:

Psa 69(大卫的诗,交与伶长。调用百合花。)

1 神啊,求你救我!因为众水要淹没我。

2 我陷在深淤泥中,没有立脚之地;我到了深水中,大水漫过我身。

3 我因呼求困乏,喉咙发乾;我因等候神,眼睛失明。

4 无故恨我的,比我头髮还多;无理与我为仇、要把我剪除的,甚为强盛。我没有抢夺的,要叫我偿还。

5 神啊,我的愚昧,你原知道;我的罪愆不能隐瞒。

6 万军的主耶和华啊,求你叫那等候你的,不要因我蒙羞!以色列的神啊,求你叫那寻求你的,不要因我受辱!

7 因我为你的缘故受了辱骂,满面羞愧。

8 我的弟兄看我为外路人;我的同胞看我为外邦人。

9 因我为你的殿心里焦急,如同火烧,并且辱骂你人的辱骂都落在我身上。

10 我哭泣,以禁食刻苦我心;这倒算为我的羞辱。

11 我拿麻布当衣裳,就成了他们的笑谈。

12 坐在城门口的谈论我;酒徒也以我为歌曲。

13 但我在悦纳的时候向你耶和华祈祷。神啊,求你按你丰盛的慈爱,凭你拯救的诚实应允我!

14 求你搭救我出离淤泥,不叫我陷在其中;求你使我脱离那些恨我的人,使我出离深水。

15 求你不容大水漫过我,不容深渊吞灭我,不容坑坎在我以上合口。

16 耶和华啊,求你应允我!因为你的慈爱本为美好;求你按你丰盛的慈悲回转眷顾我!

17 不要掩面不顾你的僕人;我是在急难之中,求你速速的应允我!

18 求你亲近我,救赎我!求你因我的仇敌把我赎回!

19 你知道我受的辱骂、欺凌、羞辱;我的敌人都在你面前。

20 辱骂伤破了我的心,我又满了忧愁。我指望有人体恤,却没有一个;我指望有人安慰,却找不著一个。

21 他们拿苦胆给我当食物;我渴了,他们拿醋给我喝。

22 愿他们的筵席在他们面前变为网罗,在他们平安的时候变为机槛。

23 愿他们的眼睛昏矇,不得看见;愿你使他们的腰常常战抖。

24 求你将你的恼恨倒在他们身上,叫你的烈怒追上他们。

25 愿他们的住处变为荒场;愿他们的帐棚无人居住。

26 因为,你所击打的,他们就逼迫;你所击伤的,他们戏说他的愁苦。

27 愿你在他们的罪上加罪,不容他们在你面前称义。

28 愿他们从生命册上被塗抹,不得记录在义人之中。

29 但我是困苦忧伤的;神啊,愿你的救恩将我安置在高处。

30 我要以诗歌讚美神的名,以感谢称他为大!

31 这便叫耶和华喜悦,胜似献牛,或是献有角有蹄的公牛。

32 谦卑的人看见了就喜乐;寻求神的人,愿你们的心甦醒。

33 因为耶和华听了穷乏人,不藐视被囚的人。

34 愿天和地、洋海和其中一切的动物都讚美他!

35 因为神要拯救锡安,建造犹大的城邑;他的民要在那里居住,得以为业。

Psa 69:36 他僕人的後裔要承受为业;爱他名的人也要住在其中。

诗篇笔记 卷二 (42-72篇)

诗篇第二卷共有叁十一章(42至72篇)。作者包括大卫(至少18章)﹑可拉后裔(6-8章)﹑亚萨(1章)﹑所罗门(1章)及不知名者(3章)。

就像诗篇其它书卷一样,第二卷书里的诗歌多出自大卫。撒母耳记下二十叁章一节称大卫为“以色列的美歌者”。他的天赋毫无疑问是 神赐给祂的教会的特殊礼物。神将这般的恩赐,即用诗歌和音乐来表达人对 神的最神圣的思想和情感的恩赐,赐给大卫,以色列的王并倾心追求 神的心意的人,是如此适宜。

正如摩西依 神所赐得以靠神的话建立会幕和律法,大卫蒙此特殊恩赐来讲述会幕和律法属灵的内涵。神在旧约 里通过摩西降下律法,又通过大卫来表明那靠耶稣基督而来的恩典,而后者是隐藏在旧约中的新约。诗人只有在恩典的灵里才可能呼出“你本不喜爱祭物“。 若换一个人,在旧约的前提下,这样讲则明显地有逆於 神的律法。

诗篇第二卷突出两点﹕

一 方面,这里说出基督以肉身在地上时所遭受的被抛弃、顶撞和苦痛。父神藉诗人说出祂的儿子将要受的苦难。诗人之最大卫,他的一生的经历彰显出基督的经历。那时,诗人自己也许并未完全意识到圣灵的工作,但诗篇里所记录的无疑是圣灵自己真实的表达。我们若不获得与圣灵在这一点上的同情,就会一直为了诗篇的预言性而与圣灵争吵,所得到的便只是肤浅的诗词欣赏,或干涸无生命的神学。

另一方面,是 神那来自高天的基督的荣耀、尊贵和大能。靠此 神也拯救我们。重生的人在读诗篇时,那“基督与祂所爱者的联合”是何等的美不胜言、完美无瑕。

诗篇卷二(42至72篇)心得随记:

42-43章: 爱 神的人处境是远离圣殿, 却更渴慕 神。这人,正是 神的百姓余数的代表。看他如何受仇敌的欺压、嗤笑。但他在“昼夜以眼泪当饮食”时单单仰望神的荣脸。作者不详。很多人认为出自可拉的後裔,也有人认为是大卫作後交给可拉的後裔去咏唱。

44: 神的百姓被抛弃、驱散(44﹕9),为了他们的 神缘故而被宰割。但 神在此时却默然不语。他们追想旧日 神在他们中行奇事的日子。如果说诗篇42、43章讲的是余数百姓内里的信心,那么44章则是他们活的见证。被驱散,是众人背逆的结果,然而最深的痛苦却落在忠心的余数身上。这就是十字架的原则,“不公平”的原则,但 神的本意如此, 因为正是这余数的祷告才达到 神, 并使 神因这祷告赐下和好 – 这是十字架的路;也正是这余数的信心和得胜使众人都受益 – 这是得胜者跟随羔羊的路。

诗篇44章是 神子民的写真,是今日蒙拣选的 神儿女们心里当看见的。

45: 得胜者祷告的答应, 弥赛亚来时的荣耀与审判。钥节﹕45﹕6-7,10-11。

46-48: 弥赛亚带来约的恢复。耶和华本为大,永永远远为我们的神。

49: 诗人转目,感叹/警告人的光景:没有 神的救赎,人的智慧、财富、尊名,都必归向虚无。

50:  神直接宣告祂的审判,同时再次劝戒、呼招祂的子民。祂必拯救。 (50:7)

51: 大卫的诗。这是一个新的起点。大卫看到了自己那可怕的真实光景。大卫痛悔自己的罪孽,真看见罪得赦免的根基不在於无数岁月里所流的献祭动物的血,乃在於一个更深的根基。这是对基督死的表白。 “求你…, 求你…, 求你…”。 “你本不喜爱祭物”。“神所要的祭﹐就是忧伤的灵”。。。

52-57: 邪恶的环境是对信心的考验;属 神的人受试炼。除了未用“耶和华”称呼 神,第50章几乎与诗篇14章等同。其中56、57两章是大卫出名的金诗。

58-59: 以色列最终走到了这样一个地步,知道只有在这邪恶的世界受到公义的审判后,神的儿女才会真正从苦难中被解救出来。在旧约时代,这是自然并合理的结论。在新约时 代,对在恩典中得救的我们来说,我们从世界中被拯救出来,靠的是基督的死与复活; 而基督的死与复活,正是对世界的王的审判。但最终会有一天圣徒们也要祷告对撒旦和其国度的最后审判 (启 6:9-11) 。

60: 大卫知道以色列已在 神的约上失信,但仍继续向 神呼求拯救,因为祂是公义的 神,是唯一的希望。没有转向别处求助的心,也没有背逆顶撞的灵,惟有专心仰赖的心。这是顺命儿女的心。这正是 神心中的以色列。正是这个灵使以色列得以在生命线上延续直至弥赛亚的到来。

61: 压抑中持守宝贵的信心。

62: 基督灵里的安息,从大卫渐渐成熟的心显露出来。“我的心哪,你当默默无声,专等候神。”(62﹕5)

63: 继62,虽在乾旱疲乏、无水之地,祷告中却流露出滋润。

64: 试炼更加严酷,仇敌在暗处。凭信心宣告“义人必因耶和华欢喜”。

65: 大卫领受了新的启示。现在他承认救恩不单是出自 神的怜悯,亦是神恩典的拣选 (65﹕4)

66: 赞美诗。盼望成为现实,神的子民被带到了丰盛之地。 (66:10-12).

67: 神的祝福通过祂的子民及至世界。

68: 大卫回顾 神对祂百姓的带领。。 这是得胜的历史。神是守约的,“祂的名字是耶和华”。大卫得到了关於基督昇天的启示(68﹕18)。这启示与使徒保罗所得的启示相同 (弗 4﹕8-11﹔ 西 2﹕25) 。

69: 这首诗的调用“百合花”。奇妙的是,诗篇45的调也是百合花。但45章那里是花园中盛开的百合花,而69章这里却是夹挤在荆棘中的百合花,是客西马尼园中的百合花。属 神的人在 神的眼中是美丽的百合花,将得荣耀的奖赏。但那一日我们都会明白,所有百合花的美丽都是出自这朵百合花(客西马尼园中的百合花) 的羞辱,而所有的奖赏都是出自这朵百合花的苦难!

“无故恨我的,比我的头发还多”(69﹕4)。这里,爱 神的人正处在最痛苦的熬炼中。在旧约时代,神找到一个人可以借他的遭遇来显明那钉基督十字架的世界之无理。那时代有谁比大卫对此角色更合适呢,有谁经历过比大卫更不合理的遭遇和苦难呢? 然而,大卫的心在 神面前安静下来,意识到他所经历的一切苦难都不过份,因为他的罪愆在 神面前是赤露敞开的(49﹕5)。然而大卫的经历却预表那无罪无瑕的真百合花将要遭受的苦难。

为什么在荣耀、得胜的66至68章之後,圣灵赐下这一章及下面的一章? 或许,即使在永世里,我们仍需从祂钉痕的手上记念主所为我们做的。

70: 继69。“阿哈! 阿哈!”,是基督在十字架上时世界所发出的声音,但从反面帮助我们领会圣灵要从这世界的罪恶中拯救我们的迫切。愿 神的儿女永远不随和这个声音,不和这个声音有份。

71: 大卫的诗。与69﹑70两章相比,这首诗歌更关乎大卫自己,并非直接预表基督。似乎在前两章里藉大卫进入了弥赛亚的经历之後,又在借大卫的儿子写出表明主权的最后一章(72)之先,圣灵再次审视大卫的内心。在这首诗歌里,我们听到大卫总结他的一生 – 他的 神拯救了他!  这里,我们似乎感到 神在宝座上,最后再一次察看 神儿女的光景, 并得满意。

72: 大卫的儿子所罗门用此诗作诗篇第二卷的结尾。诗篇中确认是出自所罗门的只有这一首。最后一句的祷告 – “耶西的儿子大卫的祷告完毕”告诉我们这其实仍是大卫的祷告。但这里讲述的是君王和他的平安,实际指向的是大卫的儿子,真所罗门,即我们的主耶稣基督。

诗篇笔记-引

旧约各部书中,诗篇是很独特的一部。这卷书不是仅仅重述神通过祂百姓身上所做的,更是著重述说神与祂的选民在意念和情感上共同的经历;也不仅仅是记录如大卫那样的几个优秀人物令人羡慕的属灵光景;甚至也不仅仅为了鼓舞、激励日后那些(因蒙福)读此书的人。

诗篇诉说的,是神与祂的民的骨肉亲情、共同经历的苦难甘甜。除了新约时主耶稣道成肉身来到地上,与人同在并为所有人承担苦难这个独一无二的神与人的交通之外,在世上,甚至在整本圣经里, 没有任何事和语言比诗篇更加能表达这个故事。明白了这个故事的人,才开始明白这世上大爱的一点。

基督的灵,在耶稣道成肉身之前,不单是引导神的以色列,事实上是与以色列生活在一起,与那些本是属土却蒙拣选的人共同经历每一件事,与他们分享祂神圣的感觉和情感。祂和他们一起经历了他们内心的沮丧、外面所受的逼迫、他们身为罪人在堕落的世界中的失败和悲哀,并深表同情。同样,祂也因为他们的得胜而喜乐并被高举。在这同行的旅途上,圣灵在地上寻得了几个像大卫这样蒙祂喜爱并能替祂出口的人,就藉他们来表达了祂的经历。

如此﹐就是诗篇。

对基督徒来讲,藉读诗篇来获取心灵里面的鼓舞和扶持是益事,因神的大能通过我们的爱慕而显为真实。

然而,神赐给我们诗篇最要紧的目的并不是为了个人得鼓励。我们时常会以自己为中心来读诗篇,这是一个极大的短缺。圣灵所盼望的,是我们因读诗篇而藉基督的灵进入与基督的交通。尽管读整本圣经都该如此,诗篇在这一点上更为独特。

神没有仅靠历史和作为来向祂的儿女揭示祂所有的心意,而把一些最深,最高的思想独留给诗篇。同样,我们今天也不能仅靠简单做个好基督徒而完全明白神的心意。在这个对应中有一个极重要的属灵预含义。旧约历史对应着我们今天的行为,而诗篇则对应着我们的心和对神的情感。

神对我们灵里面的生活有一个特殊的盼望,就是我们通过阅读、背诵和默想诗篇进入在灵里与祂的交通。我们生活中最可以直接从读诗篇受益的方面就是我们的祷告生活。

诗篇,“Psalms”或“The Book of Psalms”,若直译成中文为“诗歌”。主耶稣在路加福音二十四章四十四节称此书“Psalms”。使徒保罗在使徒行传一章二十节称此书“The Book of Psalms”。

整部诗篇分为五卷,每卷均以“阿门”或“哈利路亚”结尾。诗篇很可能从收集成书时起即分卷如此,而非後来的人为整理方便而成。用心读诗篇时,就会发现这样分卷是有其意义的。

诗篇作者包括大卫、可拉后裔、亚萨(1章)、所罗门及不知名者,但多出自大卫。撒母耳记下二十叁章一节称大卫为“以色列的美歌者”。

大卫做诗歌的天赋毫无疑问是神赐给祂的教会的特殊礼物。被造之人的天赋,高贵莫过于用诗歌和音乐来表达人对神的最神圣的思想和情感。神将这般恩赐赐给大卫(他是以色列的王并倾心追求神的心意的人),是如此适宜。

正如摩西依神所赐,得以靠神的话建立会幕和律法,大卫蒙此特殊恩赐来讲述会幕和律法属灵的内涵。 神在旧约里通过摩西降下律法,通过大卫来表明那靠耶稣基督而来的恩典,而后者是旧约中隐藏的新约。诗人只有在基督恩典的灵里才可能呼出“你本不喜爱祭物”这一撼人心的声音,因为如果换一个人在当时旧约的前提下,这样讲则明显地有逆於神的律法。

通过揭示以色列在面对世界时那种内心里向上、向内对 神的渴求,诗篇描述了神与祂的子民间一种亲密的关系。从这个角度讲,诗篇第一卷(一至四十一篇)和第二卷(四十二至七十二篇)明显不同:卷一的焦点是 神与祂的子民间立约的关系,在卷二这一关系被考验甚至破裂。

我们从诗人们如何称呼神上可以侧面看到这一点: 在卷一,神被称作“耶和华”(Jehovah)。唯独以色列人,神的子民这样称神。其它民族,即或他们泛泛地知道神,并不称神为耶和华。“耶和华”一名不仅是神与祂的百姓所立的约是象征,更是这约的戳记。而在卷二中,神多被直称为“神”(Eloheem)。当然,“神”与“耶和华”是同样神圣的称法。但是“耶和华”一名常常更强调立约的关系,而这是 神的选民对 神特有的称呼。

单从当时 神的百姓的光景的一面来看,那约的信誉已不复存在。这对一个与 神立约并以此约为命的民来讲,是何等的悲惨绝境!但这却正是神在旧约中要显明的:律法救不了人。靠着律法人只有一个结局,就是死。

但 神是信实的。在诗篇里,尤其是第二卷(四十二至七十二篇)里, 神百姓的悽惨光景越发表明弥赛亚的必要。当他们注目所立的约时,以色列人自认为特殊,为万民中被唯一拣选的。但当他们不得不正视自己堕落的真实光景时,他们开始明白他们在那让他们自豪的旧约中没有任何盼望(因为虽然 神是信实的,人却完全背了约)。他们唯一的希望是在“应许的那位”,弥赛亚身上。

弥赛亚就是要来的救主,是新约。