There is a time to fast, and there is a time to feast

Leviticus chapter 7.

After the division of the sacrifice between the altar and the priest, the trespass offering is shared by all priests even though it belongs to the priest who conducts the sacrifice.

What a marvelous picture in Leviticus. Today we live according to the Spirit of grace, not under the law. All saints are priests and can act on behalf of a sinner to make a trespass offering.

Though we have nothing to offer, we offer Christ. But the offering (sacrifice) has to be brought by the sinner himself, meaning that the sinner has to be genuinely repentant and draws his sacrifice from the sacrifice made by Christ.

But unlike that in the peace offering, the offerer himself, who is not a priest, does not participate the eating of the trespass offering.

In contrast, everyone, including the offerer and priests participate the eating of the peace offering.

The sharing of the trespass offering symbolizes the sin bearing of the priests on behalf of the offerer. And this sin bearing is shared by all priests, not just the priest who conducts the sacrifice. But because the true bearer of the sin is the offering itself, which is the sacrifice made by Christ, the sharing also indicates that all priests’ sharing of Christ.

The sin offering is made with a sorrowful heart, and is time to fast.

In contrast, peace offering is made with joy, and is time to feast. In a peace offering, even the offerer participates the eating. He is not only allowed to, but is supposed to feast upon his own offering.

There is a time to fast, and there is a time to feast. Failing to do either at the proper time is out of the order.

Also note that the peace offering offered for thanksgiving must be offered with a grain offering, which represents the humanity of Christ.

The peace comes at a cost of a warring King who is victorious. Adam’s children can share the enjoyment of that peace only because Christ took the form of man (humanity), and gave himself to us.

Leviticus 4;notes in English

The previous chapters 1-3 of Leviticus covered several categories of sacrifices which are all characterized by a sweet aroma to the Lord, offered as a symbol of devotion and completeness of Christ. The burnt offering is the most fundamental offering made by Christ to God. It represents the devotion of Christ in giving himself completely to God, and forms a basis for an overall complete salvation of man, all the way from the falling Adam (the first man) to the glory in eternity (not just the forgiveness of sins to return to the Adamic status of innocence).

Although the burnt offering is considered atonement for man (in a sense that it is the basis for the complete salvation of the fallen man), sin is not even mentioned in the burnt offering. Rather, the burnt offering solely focuses on the efficacy of Christ’s devotion and the satisfaction of God.

The grain offering represents the perfect life of the Son of Man, the life of the Second Man, the basis of our resurrected life. The grain offering not only mentions no sin, but even has no element of blood shedding, as if God completely overlooked the problem of sin.

By the same token, the peace offering represents the perfect union and fellowship between man and God, secured by Christ and in Christ with the satisfaction of both God and man, without a shadow of sin.

But sin is a reality that has to be dealt with before man can even come close to God. In chapter 4 of Leviticus, we come to the sacrifices which are the sin and trespass-offerings. In the heart of God, His satisfaction in Christ comes first. But in actual practice sin offerings must be made first to give man a standing before God.

The sin offerings include several types that are alike in the great principle, but differing in character and detail. This difference will be noticed as one reads this chapter and the several subsequent chapters.

But first a very important principle must be noticed. In the sacrifices of sweet aroma, the offerer came of his own voluntary will, and was identified as a worshiper with the acceptance of his sacrifice (the animal victim). In contrast, in the case of the sin offering, the offerer came not as a worshiper, but as a sinner required to come to solve his problem. The offerer here comes not as clean for communion with the Lord, but as having guilt upon him; and instead of his being identified with the acceptance of the sacrifice, the sacrifice became identified with his guilt and unacceptableness, bore his sins and was treated accordingly. This was especially the case where the sin-offering was purely such.

1. Introduction – Sacrifices for the Sin of the Sons of Israel (v. 1-2)

The verses 1-2 of Leviticus 4 start with an introduction which indicates that this chapter overall covers unintentional sins of the sons of Israel.

First, sin is a condition of life and a status of relationship. Just because one didn’t intentionally sin doesn’t mean the person is innocent. Much like a disease but only worse, sin is a problem to the sinner that needs to be solved. Just like a disease separates a person from his physical healthiness, sin separates one from God, his spiritual healthiness (“He is the health of my countenance”-Psalms 42:11). Sin offering is God’s provision for the sinners.

Second, note that sons of Israel include every Israelite, be it a common person, a priest or ruler. On the other hand, it is important to note that the sin offerings in these chapters concern the sins of God’s people, not the whole world. Christ is the propitiation for not only our sins, but also for the whole world (1 John 2:2), but the sin offerings specifically mentioned here concern the sin of God’s people (applicable to believers today) only.

It is important to note that this is not for the purpose of initiating the relationship between God and man, but for the purpose of restoration of holiness and communion. There is another occasion provided for the former purpose (see, for example, Leviticus 16).

Of the sons of Israelites, sins committed are divided into several types, depending on who has sinned and the nature of the offense. It is important to note the various degrees and measures of the application of the sacrifice with regard to different types of sins, as they cause different levels of interruption of the communion.

2. Sacrifices for the Sin of the Priest (vs. 4:3-12)

The sin of an anointed priest (high priest), if it brings the whole congregation into sin, causes an interruption of the communion to a high degree. Accordingly, the application of the sacrifice is of the highest degree of this type. Note the following facts:

1) A bull is offered.

2) The blood is sprinkled seven times in front of the veil of the sanctuary – a reminder to God of the perfect redemption in the blood of Christ. This restores the way to the very presence of God. God of course is always present at the Tabernacle, but certain sin threatens the very basis of the access to such presence.

3) The blood is also put on the horns of the altar of fragrant incense. This restores the intimate communion with God and worship in prayers of the saints.

4) The rest of the blood is then poured out at the base of the altar of burnt offering which is at the doorway of the tent of meeting. This restores the basic ability to approach God.

5) All the fat and two kidneys of the bull are removed and offered in smoke on the altar of burnt offering.

6) All the rest of the bull is brought out to a clean place outside the camp where the ashes are poured out, and burnt on wood with fire. Compare with the burnt offerings and peace offering, in terms of what is being burnt and where the burning takes place.

3. Sacrifices for the Sin of the Whole Congregation (vs. 4:13-21)

For the sin of the whole congregation, the sacrifices are made in similar ways except for the following differences:

1) The sacrifice is made when the sin is known.

2) The bull is brought by the elder of the congregation, instead of by the priest. However, the priest still must offer the sacrifice. The elder cannot offer a sacrifice.

4. The Sin of the Rulers (vs. 4:22-26)

The sin of a ruler is essentially treated as a sin of an individual, despite the fact that he is a ruler having authorities over the people. The sacrifice offered for the sin of a ruler is therefore similar to the sacrifices for the sin of a common person, and very different from the sacrifices for the sin of the priest or the congregation.

1)  A male goat is offered.

2) The blood is put on the horns of the altar of burnt offering (not the altar of fragrant incense). Note that the blood is not sprinkled in front of the veil nor put on the horn of the altar of fragrant incense, because the way to God’s presence in the holy of holies is not interrupted, nor is the intimate communion and worship in prayers of the saints as a whole affected. What is affected is the accessibility to God by the particular individual who has sinned, and therefore the application of the blood is at the altar of burnt offering which is always where individuals approach God.

3) The rest of the blood is then poured out at the base of the altar of burnt offering which is at the doorway of the tent of meeting. This restores the basic personal ability to approach God.

4) All the fat (but not the kidneys) of the goat is removed and offered in smoke on the altar of burnt offering.

5) The rest of the goat is not brought outside the camp to be burnt.

5. The Sin of the Common Man (vs. 4:27-35)

The sin of the common man is that of an individual. The sacrifice for this sin is offered in a way very similar to that for the sin of a ruler, except that here a female goat or a female lamb is offered.

6. Several Additional Points Related to the Sin Offering

1) Because a sin offering is required only when the sin has become known, some may think that it is better that one sins without knowing. To this, one must realize that a sin offering is an opportunity for the sinner to solve his problem, not a punishment on him for the sin. The punishment of sin is placed upon the sacrificial animal which typifies that Christ was made sin on behalf of the sinner. For this reason, consciousness of sin is a blessing because the sinner has access to a perpetual Sacrifice that is forever sufficient for securing the forgiveness of sin.

2) Contrary to a common belief, sin cannot be offered on the altar to be burnt. Sin must be burnt outside the camp as a punishment of sin, and cannot be burnt on the altar. In the burnt offering, what is offered on the altar is the complete sinless Christ. In the sin offering, only fat and kidneys may be placed on the altar to be burnt, and the rest of the sacrificial animal, which was without blemish but now made sin, must be taken to the outside of the camp to be burnt, just like the Lord Jesus suffered outside of the gate. He was sinless, but was made sin by bearing our sin.

3) There are two different aspects of a sacrifice: one is the satisfaction of Jehovah which is always based on the complete devotion of Christ; the other is the bearing of sin and the judgment on the sin bearer, which is always based on the crucifixion of Christ. These two aspects are two opposing sides.

Lots of confusion regarding sacrifices is caused by conceptually mixing these two together.  The burnt offering, grain offering and peace offering emphasize the satisfaction only, and have no bearing of sin. That’s why all that is burnt in those sacrifices are burnt on the altar. In sharp contrast to the burnt offering is the sin offering on the Day of Atonement (Leviticus 16), a highest degree of sin bearing, in which only blood is brought to the tabernacle, and everything else is burnt outside. This (not the sin offerings in chapter 4) is the opposite of the burnt offering. This happens only once every year, representing perpetual atonement of all sins, because each year is a cycle representing eternity.

If we use the language we are familiar with today, this sin offering covers our salvation from sin. However, in sin offerings of chapter 4, it is more complicated because the two different aspects are mixed in various degrees.

4) Not everything in a sin offering represents sin bearing. The sin offerings all have, in various degrees, at least some part of the sacrifice bunt on the altar. This part is not for the purpose of sin bearing but for the satisfaction of God on basis of the complete devotion of Christ.

Now, compared to that of the Day of Atonement, the sin offerings in chapter 4 are all of lighter degrees because they deal with unintentional sins that happen day to day.  If we use the language we are familiar with today, this represents our sanctification by separating from sins.  That’s why chapter 4 covers only unintentional sins.  Because if a sin is presumptuous (intentional), it is no longer a matter of sanctification but a matter of salvation, which can only be solved by the sacrifice made on the day of atonement.

This category covered in chapter 4 is further divided into several degrees. For the sin of the anointed priest and congregation, not only the blood is brought to into the tabernacle, but also the fat and the two kidneys are burnt on the altar. This represents the satisfaction of Jehovah based on the devotion of Christ.

The rest is then brought to the outside and burnt as the sin bearer.

When it comes to the least significant type of sin, the blood is not brought into the tabernacle, but the fat is still burnt on the altar to represent the satisfaction, while the rest is not brought out of the camp to be burnt but eaten by the priests. Unlike the peace offering given to the priest as their portion of blessing, in this particular sin offering priests become the sin bearer. But only the least serious type of sin of individuals is dealt this way.

The bottom line is this: whatever that is burnt on altar represents the devotion of Christ, and is always a sweet aroma to the Lord; and nothing that represents sin can be burnt on the altar (and must be generally brought outside of the camp to be burnt and only in minor cases eaten by the priests).

The burnt offering and the sin offering on the Day of Atonement represent two opposites. But even in the sin offering on the Day of Atonement, some blood is sprinkled toward the tent of meeting instead of being burnt outside the camp.

On the Day of Atonement, God squarely faces sin as it is. What result could it be to people had it not been for the blood that is sprinkled? With the blood, it is a day of atonement; without blood, it would be a day of judgment. The blood did not make the judgment disappear. The blood represents the fact that the judgment on that day fell on Christ. We have His own voice cried out on the cross to remind us of this fact. “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?”

利未记第四章 Leviticus 4

在利未记第四章里所献的祭, 与燔祭, 素祭和平安祭很不同。这里,人是因犯罪得罪了 神而献赎罪祭。前来献祭的人不是一个敬拜者的身份,而是一个罪人的身份, 神要求他通过赎罪祭来解决他的问题。他是负罪的,不洁净的,中断了与 神的交通。他不能与被悦纳的祭物认同而前来被接受。相反,倒是祭物被认同与他的罪以及他不能被接受的状态 (unacceptable status),而承担他的罪。在赎罪祭中,祭牲被照着他(罪人)所犯的罪处置。

1. 简介 – 以色列民的赎罪祭 (第1,2 节)

第四章头两节告诉我们两件事。一是这里的赎罪祭关乎“误犯的罪”,即因为无知或不留意所犯的罪。因此这里的赎罪祭可以说是“生活中的祭”或是“平日的祭”,关乎 神儿女圣洁成圣的祭。在有意所犯的罪中,有些也是关乎圣洁的,比如那些在第五章里所讲的。但许多任意妄为的罪却关乎人的救恩,并非是这里的赎罪祭可以解决的, 而要回到每年赎罪日所献的祭(16章)。


2. 祭司的赎罪祭(第3-12节)

作为 神子民在 神面前的代表,受膏的祭司犯罪对百姓与 神的关系的破坏属最大一类。相应地,祭司为自己的罪而献的赎罪祭,用的是此类中最大的範围和方式。

1) 所献的是公牛犊。由受膏的祭司牵到会幕门口,按手,并宰於耶和华面前。
2) 公牛的血要在圣所的幔子前被弹七次 (但并不进到幔内 – 对照16章)。
3) 血抹在香坛的四角上。
4) 所有余下的血被倒在燔祭坛的坛脚。有关血的动作,全由受膏的祭司自己来做。
5) 公牛所有的脂油和两个腰子都被取下,与平安祭公牛上所取的一样,并烧在燔祭坛上。
6) 公牛身上所有其它部分都被搬到营外倒灰的地方,在着火的柴上被烧掉。

3. 全会众的赎罪祭(第13-21节)

1) 献祭是在会众知道所犯的罪后进行的。
2) 由长老(而不是祭司)牵到会幕门口,按手,并宰於耶和华面前。但献祭要由祭司来完成。取血用血,全是由受膏的祭司来做。

4. 官长犯罪(第22-26节)

1) 以公山羊为祭物。由犯罪的官长牵到会幕门口,按手,并宰於耶和华面前。但献祭要由祭司来完成。
2) 祭牲的血抹在燔祭坛的角上(而非香坛)。取血用血,全由祭司完成,但不需受膏的祭司。
3) 余下的血倒在会幕门口,燔祭坛坛脚。
4) 公山羊所有的脂油(但不包括腰子)都被取下并烧在燔祭坛上。
5) 公山羊余下的部分不被拿到营外烧掉。

5. 平民犯罪(第27-35节)



1) 赎罪祭不是为了惩罚罪人设的,而是神给人一个解决人自己问题的机会。对罪的惩罚落在祭牲身上 – 这表征基督为了罪人承担了罪。

2) 罪不能被献在祭坛上烧掉 – 那代表罪的必须被带到营外被烧掉。 这是 神对罪的态度。有一首常唱的诗歌 (一首很好的诗歌),其中有一句是说到愿人的罪被放到祭台上被圣火烧掉,实际上是不对的。罪不能放到祭台上被烧掉。祭台上放的只能是圣别的。那代表罪的,必须被带到营外被烧掉。感谢主,即使是代表赎罪祭的祭牲,也有一些重要部分是被拿出来圣别放在祭台上(脂油以及有些例子中的腰子)。但祭牲的整体必须是被带到营外被烧掉的,不能烧在祭坛上。

利未记第十一章 Leviticus 11

利未记第十一章本该是接著第九章的,但在第十章中我们却看到发生了亚伦两子因献凡火被耶和华击杀的事。亚伦子孙侍奉圣职的第一日, 带入了耶和华的荣光,但也显明人天然本性的败坏。

那日耶和华晓谕亚伦说:「。。。使你们可以将圣的、俗的,洁净的、不洁净的,分别出来。。。」 (利未记10:1-2)。

耶和华要祂的百姓从死亡和不洁的世界中分别出来。这是 神的心意。若没有第十章的悲剧,我们会以为这一切的洁凈与不洁凈,可吃与不可吃的吩咐,或许是 神挑剔的嗜好,或是用来限制祂百姓的手段。但现在我们看到这是关乎生命的大事。

神就是要分别。分别是 神在地上工作的开始。起初那混沌的世界也是靠 神的手分开得以恢复为生命栖息之处(创1:4-7)。这里 神定意要祂的百姓明白他们得以维持与 神和好的生命,其必要条件就是分别。而在这里的一切,又都是影儿,为著要表明将来在耶稣基督里的实际。

所以看这一章的经文,我们的心必须先被圣灵说服(convinced),承认(confess)我们就是要分别,我们必须分别,分别洁凈的与不洁凈的,分别死亡和生命。 我们分别才能存活。我们分别是向著罪死,活就是与主联合。

清楚这个出发点,我们才可接下来询问 神到底是如何样的分别。 若我们如此问,我们就进入这一章神的话的丰富之中。

应该注意的几个事实要点:(1) 神的话所分别之物涵盖地上,水中及空中;神又特别提到那些有天地混合属性的, 以及那些不仅在地上并且是紧贴在地上的爬物。(2) 神的话区分活的和死的。(3) 神关乎分别的话总是凡物分为两类,并非五花八门,就是可吃的与不可吃的,或洁凈的与不洁凈的。(4)儘管 神只是用这些物代表背後属灵的实际,神对各物的划分和选择并非是随便的,而是与每一物的本性及习性有关。

1. 走兽中可吃的(第2-8 节)


2. 水中可吃的(第9-12节)


3. 雀鸟中不可吃的(第13-19节)

有关雀鸟没有定规一个一般原则,而是一一举例不可吃的,也说明凡没有提到的都是可吃的。 但所列举的一般或是掠夺性的捕食鸟类 (雕、狗头雕、红头雕、鹞鹰、小鹰与其类),食腐类,孤居的,以及夜行的。

4. 凡有翅膀用四足爬行的物,都不可吃,除例外(第20-22节)

有翅膀却用四足爬行的, 是貌似属天却在地上爬行的。只是有足有腿,在地上蹦跳的,还可以吃.

5. 各类中可憎的或不洁凈的,死了不可摸的(第23-31节)


6. 物件因死物的沾染 (第32-38节)

7. 原本可吃的,死了不可摸的(第39-40节)

8. 凡地上爬物,都不可吃也不可沾染其污秽(第41-44节)


9. 总结(第45-47节)



但这一章中的圣洁有其独特含义。如果我们只看到前面有关献祭的规定,也许会以为人的圣洁只取决于他献祭的活动。祭若献得对,人也就正确了。但这里看到不是这样。耶和华在利未记十一章中明确把 神儿女的圣洁与他们平时所吃所摸的关联起来。


吃和摸代表我们生活中一大部分。今日,吃和摸指的并非眼见的食物及物件,而是指我们心与世界的关係。凡入口的,并不污秽人,惟独从心里发出来的,这才污秽人 (太15:17-19)。 我们要在此类事上谨守圣洁,但这圣洁是 神先在基督里赐给我们的,要我们守住,而不是因我们谨守就生出圣洁来。

利未記第十八章 Leviticus 18


前一章(十七章)神吩咐了敬拜的律,包括人与圣殿和祭物的关係,关乎人与天的关係。但无论是人与天(十七章)还是人与地(十八章),都是关乎人与 神的事,因为耶和华是天和地的主。人是随了这世界的王冒犯天,也污秽地,成为不洁并得死亡。

自从人堕落之後,神把人遮蔽起来了。人生命里有一个隐蔽的层面,神定规唯有在夫妻之间可以穿透。任何对此律的过犯都是对生命的毁坏和玷污。对此,人在 神所给的直觉中原本是明明可知的,但撒旦的破坏使得 神有必要吩咐祂的民。利未记十八章是 神对祂的民最严正的警戒和保护。

1. 律例典章的权柄、根源、及背景(第1-5 节)

-“… 晓谕以色列人”(不单独提亚伦和他子孙)。
-“我是耶和华你们的 神。” 神再次重申祂是谁,以及祂和以色列人的关係,由此指明所要吩咐的律虽然管理道德行为,但并非简单如世人的道德规範。
– 不可效法从前住的埃及地的人,也不可效法要领入的迦南地的人。不是埃及,也不是迦南。不是从一个文化到另一个文化。乃是从世界到基督。
– 要守此典章,因为“我是耶和华你们的 神”。
– “人若遵行,就必因此活著(原文:“必活在裏面”)。我是耶和华。”律法的满足,是人能活著的原因或根基。旧约时是如此,在新约时仍是如此。但今天我们知道人是在基督里使律法得以满足的。我们凭著信,得以活著(义人必因信得生),但我们必活在基督裏面。不只是在外面(externally)靠著基督活,而是住在基督裏面得以存活。

2. 不可露骨肉之亲的下体,亲近他们(第6-18节)

– 这里的律例,不只是为著保护两性关係的圣洁不受玷污和毁坏(身体的亲近,只爲夫妻设立而预备,对此 神另有心意),更强调对人生命的本身及 神家中规範和圣洁的保护。
– 留意每一个过犯所羞辱的真正对象。此处的“羞辱”不是平常说的“使人丢脸”,而是一种根本性的玷污(fundamental defilement)。

3. 不可玷污 神所定规的男女身体的亲近(第19-23节)

– 这里所吩咐的,和上面6-18节所强调的目的稍有不同。这里著重的,一是为著当事人自己生命不受玷污,也是为著让 神所定规的男女身体的亲近关係(夫妻亲情)的圣洁不受玷污。
– 这里的过犯,从不洁净(v.19), 不贞洁(v.20),交鬼亵渎 (v. 21), 可憎恶的(v. 22), 直到逆性的(v. 23)。 我们或许以为 神在危言耸听,但这些全是人所行的。

4. 在这一切事上,都不可玷污自己(第23-29节)

– “从迦南我在你面前所逐出的列邦,在这一切事上玷污了自己(v.24)。”
– “连地玷污了… 那地就吐出其民(v.25)。”要注意这里是特指迦南列邦所说的。有一种的败坏,不仅冒犯天(将来要受审判),也冒犯地(现在就受审判)。在这地上,除了 神的百姓,没有一个民族,国家和文化是属 神的。但 神在怜悯之中让列国存留,至少让地在忍耐之中暂且收容他们。可是竟有这一种的情景,连地也要吐出那民。这是何等可怕的事。

5. 总结(第30节)

– “所以要守我所吩咐的,免得你们随从那些可憎的恶习… 以致玷污了自己”。这里的“恶习”,并非简单指不好的习俗。原文是“法规 (ordinance)”。这世界的王也有其法规。可怜人先顺己意行恶事,到头来就随从那些可憎的法规污秽自己。
– “我是耶和华你们的 神。”神重申祂是谁,要我们相信我们的 神,不轻看祂的话。

利未記第二十六章 Leviticus 26

利未记第二十六章是律法 (Levitical Laws)的总结。在此 神对律法的总结并不是一个内容上的重申和概括(尽管第一和第二节是如此),而是强调 神对律法之力度、执行及果效的态度。在利未记前面所记的律法中,因为处处涉及到个人的行为,人或许会以为那些律法是为著规整个人行为的。但在二十六章里我们就看到 神的心意是为著祂的以色列的整体。“你们若。。。我就;你们若不,我就”,是本章的关键语句。

可以说在任何一个给定的时间,在以色列民中总是有守律法的和违背律法的,而律法的果效也必在每个个人身上报应;然而在 神的眼中竟有“整个以色列满足律法”或“整个以色列不满足律法”这样一件的事和判断!

这不是律法的额外条款。这是律法合一的目的。 神的心意就是要藉著律法得以满足来住在祂的民中。以马内利,这是我们主的名字。这个心意, 神最后在启示录(启21:3)再次藉天使用大声音宣告。 神的帐幕在人间。我们是何等地要感激主耶稣,因为祂才是律法真正的满足。靠著祂, 神才得以与我们同住。

“你们若。。。我就;你们若不,我就”。这是 神的法则。这是 神的真实。在祂里面没有虚假。这也是律法的真实。

我们要注意到当以色列遵行 神的律法时, 神的奖赏是祂的恩典,不是义务。难道圣洁的 神没有权利要求祂的民遵行祂的吩咐吗?但 神竟然为人作他该做的而应许丰富的奖赏。而这奖赏竟然是取消 神在伊甸园对犯罪后的亚当那个咒诅(“你必汗流满面才得糊口”创3:19)。这预表在 神面前使律法得以满足的“义”所带来的救赎之深远(但这“义”是在基督里,我们因信算为我们的)。

同时也要注意到当以色列不遵从 神的律法时, 神的管教同样也是出自怜悯,不是恼怒。

奖赏和惩罚,正是说出 神是用祂的双手来带以色列,犹如捧在手中。 神右手奖赏,左手惩治。

这一章宝贵的经文,让我们看到我们的 神实在是习惯用右手的。奖赏是一次全给下来,好像 神几乎等不及要奖赏。惩罚却是层层量定,酌情上升。每次更大的悖逆后才带来更加重的惩罚,不正是从反面说出 神惩罚的手是何等地斟酌而量定的吗? 神奖赏的手是何等地快,惩罚的手又是何等地慢。

1. 律例典章的重申和概括(第1-2 节)

– 不可崇拜偶像。这是律法中一切关乎 神的圣洁的条例的代表,包括十诫的头四条。没有任何事比偶像崇拜更加惹动 神的愤怒。神是忌邪的 神。不认识这点,甚至为此怀抱抗议的人,不认识 神最基本的性情,就是祂的圣洁。“因为我是耶和华你们的 神。”
– 要守耶和华的安息日,敬祂的圣所。这是律法中一切关乎人的圣洁(反应在人与 神以及人与人之间的关系两方面)的条例的代表。

2. 你们若。。。我就(第3-13节)

– 3-5节, 神赐丰收,是生命粮食的保證,胜过仅仅养活人(“我来是要让人得生命,并且得的更丰盛。”)。这是我们救恩的开端和根基。
– 6节, 神赐平安,是安全的保證。得救者经历主,藏身在主里。这是我们得救后生命的经历。
– 7-8节, 神赐力量, 是得胜的保證。蒙召者征战并在基督里得胜。
– 9-13节, 神赐祂的同在,在祂民中行走,并让众人与祂一起挺身而走。蒙恩的众人在基督里的合一。

3. 你们若不。。。我就(第14-39节)

– 把脸转离你们,让保护离开你们 (14-17)
– 若还不,我就加七倍惩罚你们 (18-20)
– 若还不,还不肯听,我就要按你们的罪加七倍降灾于你们 (21-22)
– 若仍不悔改,我就因你们的罪击打你们七次 (23-26)
– 若还不听从,我就要发烈怒(27-39)。 神是何等样不情愿惩罚。

4. 你们若认罪,我就纪念所立的约,并要纪念这地(第40-45节)

– 这里43节不是新的惩罚,而是 神召剩余认罪的人来回顾他们先前被管教的遭遇。44节也不是指这些剩余认罪的不得回归原地,仍被留在仇敌之地,而是陈述 神在先前的管教中对认罪者的恩典。
– 45节:“我却要为他们的缘故记念我与他们先祖所立的约 。”

注意到45节这里是给认罪的余数所讲的。这是罪人的福音。罪已经犯了,那个罪的结果已经是事实,犯罪的人就是认了罪,也无法改变这个现实。律法因此不再能是 神恩待的基础(basis)。恰好相反,按照律法,那犯了死罪的唯一可选的结局就是死,不管认不认罪,都是同一个结局(在律法里并没有只要承认错误就一概不追究这样一条)。

但感谢 神, 神此时纪念的,不是在西乃山颁布的律法,而是祂与以色列先祖所立的约。这约(旧约)和律法是有区别的。有许多人误以为旧约就是律法。不是这样。 神与以色列先祖所立的约是旧约的中心。那约是新约的预表(两约都是关乎基督),是无条件的。律法却是有条件的。这是律法按其本身属性的真实。


但感谢主,我们的救恩是以 神的约为基础的,不是以律法为基础的。旧约是预表基督,新约是基督已成就的救恩。人人都是因信称义, 并没有例外。

5. 总结(第46节)

– “这些律例、典章和法度是耶和华与以色列人在西乃山藉著摩西立的”。

利未记第十三章 Leviticus 13 – in English

Concerning leprosy in the first half of chapter 13, one of the points to be noted is the relationship between the leper and the priest.

In today’s application, the priesthood first of all represents spiritually discerning people who are in a position of authority to us. This is probably not too difficult to understand for young people. For a young person, the priests are parents and elders in the church.

However, we should not forget that every saved person is a priest himself.  This is the inner spiritual discernment of every saved person. It is the inner dwelling of the Holy Spirit.

Do you often recognize the priest in another brother or sister?

Sometimes the reason why the Lord wants us to be together is to put each one of us under the examination of others who may each exercise spiritual discernment, which to various degrees may fulfill the role of priesthood.

This is of course not to put us under daily judgment by others. The spiritual discernment comes with the spirit of truth and the spirit of love. If we humble ourselves,  “in lowliness of mind, each esteeming the other as more excellent than themselves;” (Phi 2:3), the function of individual priesthood of God’s people may be fulfilled.

Further, the priest in each person can perform the duty of the priest internally.  Do I have the right kind of spiritual discernment in me? Do I bring the leper in myself to that inner priest in me for inspection? Do I respect the authority of that inner priest in me? These are questions that we should all ask.

It is not about following a ritual. It’s all about being obedient and following the Holy Spirit.

利未记第十二章 Leviticus 12 – in English

Concerning the distinction of a male child and a female child in birth – It is important to recognize that the distinction is not between different individuals (in that one is male and another female), but to indicate the two different statuses of every redeemed individual.

In the spiritual sense, the birth of a male child and its redemption represents the relationship between man and God, his creator. The recovery in this case is seven days, corresponding to the recovery of the first creation. The man is to be redeemed from a fallen state to the sinless Adamic state.

In contrast, the birth of a female child and its redemption represents the relationship between the Church and Christ, her husband. The recovery is therefore two seven days (not 14 days, but double seven days).

The first is the recovery of the first creation, while the second is from the first creation to the new creation. This is the complete salvation.  Every child of God is in the position of a female to receive that.  This aspect of salvation is also the most lost in today’s church.